Liste des mémoires du Cogmaster année 2020-2021

ANTOINE Victor
Quantifying near-homophony induced by French liaison
Sous la direction de Sharon Peperkamp et Rory Turnbull

Résumé : Liaison in French consists of the pronunciation of an otherwise silent underlying word-final consonant when the following word is vowel-inital e.g. dernier chat ‘last cat’ [d??.nje.?a] but dernier achat ‘last purchase’ [d??.nje.?a.?a]. Liaison consonants can lead to near-homophonous sequences e.g. dernier rachat ‘last repurchase’ is pronouced as dernier achat. Such sequences raise difficulties as speakers activate both forms – but must be able to determine which one is intended – and thus are processed more slowly than non-homophonous ones (Spinelli et al., 2003). We investigated whether French is structured in such a way as to reduce liaison-induced near- homophonous environments. Using the corpus Lexique, we extracted (i) all words with an underlying liaison consonant e.g. dernier and (ii) all pairs of words differing only by the presence vs. absence of an initial consonant e.g. achat / rachat. We combined them to create confusing doublets e.g. {dernier achat / dernier rachat} – keeping only grammatical ones. As we were interested in whether liaison consonants were the ones that produced the least number of doublets, we devised substitutions of liaison consonants. Words were identical except for their liaison consonant – e.g. dernier would have [f] and no longer [?] as liaison consonant – and thus giving new confusing doublets – e.g. {dernier acteur ‘last actor’ / dernier facteur ‘last factor’}. We found a significantly lower number of confusing doublets for four of the six liaison consonants. Post-hoc frequency analyses were run to test whether these doublets were troublesome in everyday speech. We selected so-called troublesome doublets i.e. (i) those which the speaker experienced frequently and (ii) which were difficult to segment. We found a significantly lower number of troublesome doublets for three of the six liaison consonants. We claim that these results suggest that French is indeed structured such as to minimize liaison-induced near-homophony.
24 p., 2021
Spécialité : Langage
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1902


AUDOUY Flore
Confidence in having a conscious perception could track conscious perception in Hakwan Lau’s Perceptual Reality Monitoring
Sous la direction de Faivre Nathan
Résumé : Morales & Lau, forthcoming, argue that the level of confidence in a detection task reflects the degree of perceptual awareness. Yet, their claim is undermined by cases where confidence is informed by prior beliefs. Indeed, in this case, confidence would not reflect the degree of conscious perception. However, Sandberg et al., 2010, highlight two different uses of confidence judgment in a detection task that Morales and Lau do not seem to disentangle. On one side, the participant can rate his confidence in having a phenomenal experience of the signal; on the other side, he can rate is confidence in having provided a correct perceptual response. Based on Lau’s model of ‘Perceptual Reality Monitoring’ (‘PRM’) (Lau, 2019), this thesis proposes to investigate which of these two forms of confidence could track consciousness. Indeed, PRM asserts that the formation of conscious perception depends on a metacognitive system that monitors the quality of a first-order state. If the monitoring mechanism ‘decides’ that a perceptual evidence has been externally triggered, then a conscious perception with assertoric force is formed. Assertoric force is a phenomenal component of conscious perception that inclines the perceiver to believe his perceptual content. If the place of assertoric force in PRM seems to show that confidence in the correctness of the response tracks consciousness, the case of resisted hallucinations will suggest that it is not always true. Therefore, it will be argued that confidence in having a phenomenal experience of the signal might track consciousness. In particular, it will be argued that Perceptual Awareness Scales closely resemble to this latter form of confidence in PRM. Therefore, if the interpretation of Lau’s model is correct, then it should be confidence in having a phenomenal experience of the signal that should track consciousness, and even if confidence is informed by prior beliefs.
56 p., 2021
Spécialité : Psychologie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1903


BAUDIER Laure
La Flexibilité Cognitive : une compétence générale, dépendante du contexte ou d’une composante flexible spécifique ?
Sous la direction d’Evelyne Clément
Résumé : La flexibilité cognitive est habituellement décrite comme une capacité générale, indépendante du contexte, se développant dès le plus jeune âge suite à la maturation du cerveau (Diamond, 2013 ; Zelazo & Frye, 1998). Dans cette perspective, diverses tâches et méthodes reposant sur le changement de tâche ont été conçues dans l’intention d’entraîner et d’évaluer cette capacité, mais comme le note Clément (2021), ces paradigmes ne font qu’évaluer la composante de changement de tâche des fonctions exécutives, et non toute l’étendue de ce qu’est réellement la flexibilité cognitive. Implicitement, ces tâches partent de l’hypothèse que la flexibilité est une aptitude générale au domaine qui repose sur le déplacement de l’attention entre deux tâches. Or, cette hypothèse fait l’objet d’un débat animé dans la littérature concernant la nature de la flexibilité cognitive. Par exemple, les résultats d’expériences utilisant deux formes de tâches de flexibilité structurellement similaires (basées sur un changement de règles ou d’inférences) suggèrent que la flexibilité cognitive n’est pas un trait globalement cohérent (Deák & Whiseheart, 2015). De plus, des études neuropsychologiques ont démontré l’existence de deux formes de flexibilité cognitive : la flexibilité réactive et la flexibilité spontanée. La flexibilité réactive désigne la capacité à passer d’un stimulus ou d’une tâche en réponse à des contraintes environnementales, tandis que la flexibilité spontanée décrit la capacité à produire une diversité d’idées ou adopter différentes perspectives.
Nous avons étudié la nature de la flexibilité cognitive chez des enfants de CP et analysé leurs performances individuelles à deux tâches de flexibilité spontanée, deux tâches de flexibilité adaptative et trois épreuves de fonctionnement exécutif. Les passations ayant été perturbées depuis ce début d’année 2021, ce mémoire rapporte des résultats préliminaires sur une population de 14 sujets qui ont complété l’ensemble des épreuves.
Ces premières analyses ne sont pas vouées à être généralisées, mais les analyses de corrélations ainsi que la construction des modèles de prédicteurs exécutifs suggèrent que la flexibilité serait très sensible au contexte dans lequel elle s’exprime ainsi qu’ aux connaissances impliquées par chaque tâche.
34 p., 2021
Spécialité : Psychologie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1904


CARBUCCIA Laudine
Les barrières d’accès aux modes d’accueil formels chez les populations défavorisées : une approche comportementale
Sous la direction de Coralie Chevallier et Carlo Baron
Résumé : Alors que les modes d’accueil formels (c’est-à-dire principalement les crèches et les assistantes maternelles) sont des leviers d’action très efficaces pour réduire les inégalités de développement présentes dès la petite enfance, ces structures sont elles-mêmes marquées par de fortes inégalités d’accès. Les raisons de la sous-représentation des familles défavorisées ont déjà été étudiées, mais pas de manière systématique. Le travail de revue présenté dans ce mémoire a permis 1) de construire un modèle intégratif des barrières d’accès aux modes d’accueil formels pour ces populations 2) d’évaluer ce modèle à travers une revue systématique PRISMA de la littérature. Les barrières socio-structurelles sont les seules visées par les politiques publiques actuelles. Pourtant, notre revue met en évidence que des barrières de nature psychologique, qui n’ont jamais été théorisées jusqu’à présent, sont au moins aussi importantes que ces barrières socio-structurelles. De nouvelles politiques publiques devraient être créées pour agir sur les barrières psychologiques, faute de quoi l’efficacité des réformes structurelles pourrait s’avérer fortement limitée.
79 p., 2021
Spécialité : Cognition sociale
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1905


CLAVE Amélie
Du laboratoire à la réalité : la prospect theory nous permet-elle de prédire les comportements des investisseurs ?
Sous la direction de Valérian Chambon – Tiphaine Saltini
Résumé : En 1979, Daniel Kahneman et Amos Tversky ont développé une nouvelle théorie en économie comportementale : la théorie des perspectives. Quarante ans plus tard, elle reste au cœur de nombreuses réflexions et débats pour chercher à comprendre et anticiper les comportements des agents économiques lors de la prise de décision dans un contexte de risque. De nombreux chercheurs continuent en effet à s’interroger sur la pertinence de cette théorie, et plus particulièrement sur la possibilité de l’appliquer à la réalité et de généraliser ses conclusions hors du laboratoire. Cette interrogation semble légitime puisque cette théorie a reçu de nombreuses validations théoriques mais qu’elle se heurte à quelques limites lorsqu’il s’agit d’extrapoler ses conclusions à la vie quotidienne et à la réalité hors du laboratoire. La méthodologie spécifique utilisée au sein des laboratoires pour les expériences, la question de la stabilité des préférences individuelles dans le temps ainsi que la découverte de plusieurs autres biais cognitifs qui semblent pouvoir apporter des subtilités dans une théorie de la prise de décision dans un contexte de risque sont autant d’éléments qui invitent à nuancer les conclusions et les ambitions de la théorie des perspectives. Face à ce constat et à ces freins, nous avons tenté d’identifier des pistes pour améliorer la fiabilité des résultats obtenus grâce à la théorie des perspectives et augmenter sa capacité prédictive : adapter les méthodes de capture des préférences à une population plus large et moins éduquée, se trouver dans une situation de risque, où les décisions sont prises à l’échelle individuelle, considérer les résultats comme des indicateurs statiques des préférences de risque et réfléchir à des méthodes alternatives pour agrandir les échantillons.
30 p., 2021
Spécialité : Psychologie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1906


DANAN Flora
Segmentation différée d’évènements complexes en mémoire épisodique
Sous la direction de Fabrice Berna
Résumé : La recherche présente s’inscrit dans un projet appelé ‘‘Bridging the gap between episodic and autobiographical memory’’. Ce projet tend à employer des dispositifs technologiques modernes
comme la réalité virtuelle ou les caméras portatives afin d’étendre les données sur la mémoire épisodique à un cadre écologique qui tend à se rapprocher de la mémoire autobiographique. Il vise à mieux comprendre les modalités d’encodage et le traitement cognitif d’évènements dynamiques, complexes, multisensoriels. Dans le cadre de la théorie de la segmentation d’évènements (Zacks et al., 2007), il a été montré que mettre en exergue le processus de découpage mental des séquences d’actions pourrait améliorer l’encodage en mémoire. Afin d’être en mesure d’évaluer la segmentation des évènements personnellement vécus dans des études à venir, nous avons souhaité savoir si l’amélioration de la mémoire liée à une segmentation explicite des évènements serait toujours observable en introduisant un délai entre les phases d’encodage, de segmentation et de récupération. Par ailleurs, nous avons souhaité tester l’effet de l’implication du sujet dans la tâche en manipulant la perspective (1ère personne vs 3e personne) adoptée lors du visionnage des vidéos et de la segmentation d’évènements. Nos analyses réalisées sur un échantillon de faible taille n’ont pas montré de différence entre les groupes segmentation et contrôle, mais il a été constaté que les vidéos visualisées en perspective 1ère personne bénéficiaient d’un meilleur rappel que les vidéos en 3ème personne. Des analyses secondaires ont été réalisées afin d’identifier des variables pertinentes pour la conception expérimentale de la suite du projet, qui évaluera les mécanismes de la segmentation d’événements encodés en vie réelle. La suite de ce travail consistera à mieux comprendre les altérations d’encodage et de segmentation d’évènements dynamiques chez les personnes avec schizophrénie.
68 p., 2021
Spécialité : Psychologie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1907


DUSSARD Claire
Effets de la transparence tâche-feedback sur le neurofeedback beta en imagerie motrice
Sous la direction de Charlotte Jacquemot
Résumé : Ce rapport présente les résultats de nos travaux visant à étudier l’effet de la transparence tâche – feedback sur la performance en neurofeedback ? avec imagination motrice. Trois conditions de feedback unimodales et multimodales de transparence croissantes ont été testées dans un design intra-sujet avec 22 participants. Le feedback délivré au sujet était lié à leur niveau de désynchronisation dans la bande ? au sens large (8-30Hz), calculé au niveau de l’électrode C3, contralatérale au mouvement imaginé de la main droite. Nous obtenons une désynchronisation plus forte lorsque le feedback visuel est transparent (main virtuelle reproduisant le type de mouvement imaginé versus pendule oscillant plus ou moins selon le niveau de désynchronisation). En revanche, il n’y a pas de bénéfice du feedback multimodal (main virtuelle + vibration intermittente sur le dos de la main du sujet induisant une illusion de mouvement). Ces résultats sont interprétés en lien avec la transparence du feedback et en termes d’agentivité perçue par le sujet, qui était plus forte dans la condition de feedback visuel transparent (main virtuelle).
59 p., 2021
Spécialité : Neurosciences
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1908


GALLEZOT Charlotte
Expression of emotions through spoken language in Huntington’s Disease
Sous la direction de Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Dupoux
Résumé : Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease that is characterised by progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric disorders. Patients with HD are impaired in emotion recognition through face, voice and body posture. Less is known about their ability to express emotions. In particular, there are no results on emotion expression through spoken language. The aim of our study was to investigate emotion expression through voice and spoken language in HD. Methods used in previous studies to assess emotion expression in HD or to study emotional prosody were not relevant for our investigation. To investigate emotion expression in HD we used emotion classifiers.
We found that symptomatic patients with HD are impaired in emotion expression through voice and spoken language whereas there was no evidence for a similar impairment in premanifest pa- tients. Following our results we tried to understand which underlying mechanisms could account for these impairments. Our results were consistent with the hypothesis brought by [1] of an impair- ment in motoric representation of emotions. Yet what we observed on emotion expression through language indicates that this hypothesis is not sufficient to explain emotional dysfunctions in HD.
Our results bring new perspectives for future studies. First, we highlighted several questions that should be investigated as to the precise nature and chronology of HD patients’ emotional impairments. Then, if thoroughly validated, our method could be used in future studies on other diseases. Beyond these academic perspectives, our results also have clinical implications. Awareness of HD patients’ emotion expression impairments should be raised amongst patients and caregivers to improve their interactions. Then, we showed that even if it was harder to classify emotions in HD patients’ speech than in controls’, it was still possible to do so. This paves the way for the development of new methods to monitor HD at home.
31 p., 2021
Spécialité : Langage
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1909


HADDAD Rhea
Optimiser un dispositif de participation citoyenne qui vise à réduire l’impact environnemental de la filière bovine à Nantes Métropole grâce aux sciences cognitives
Sous la direction de Dominique Barreau et Griessinger Thibaud
Résumé : Ce projet s’inscrit dans le cadre du Projet Alimentaire Territorial de Nantes Métropole qui vise à répondre aux enjeux de sécurité alimentaire, de transition écologique, ou encore de réduction de gaspillage alimentaire. L’objectif de ce projet est d’utiliser les sciences cognitives dans le but d’optimiser une méthodologie de participation citoyenne qui réunit les acteurs de la filière bovine (de l’éleveur au consommateur en passant par les acteurs intermédiaires) afin de les accompagner dans la rédaction d’un plan d’action visant à réduire l’impact environnemental de leurs pratiques. Ce dispositif participatif permet de prendre en compte l’interdépendance des acteurs de la filière dans l’appréhension de la complexité de la problématique en se reposant sur les expertises et points de vue des acteurs qui seront mis en situation et outillés de connaissances pour qu’ils puissent appréhender la complexité de la problématique et des enjeux environnementaux, et comprendre leur marge d’action et les points de vue des autres acteur pour ensemble dégager des pistes d’action.
A partir de l’identification d’obstacles cognitifs majeurs à la réflexion et à la prise de décision collective nécessaire à la mise en place d’un plan d’action ambitieux, nous avons développé une méthodologie d’ateliers participatifs permettant de tester et comparer différentes stratégie pour les lever et faciliter le travail en groupe. Une méthodologie de mesure d’impact a été développée pour évaluer le succès de la démarche (qualité du plan d’action et niveau d’engagement des participants à changer de pratiques), et estimer la pertinence absolue et relative des leviers mis en place pour déjouer les obstacles cognitifs identifiés.
109 p., 2021
Spécialité : Cognition sociale
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1910


HERRERA-MASUREL Alicia
Nuclear Energy and CO2 Emissions : bridging the consensus gap on the contribution of
nuclear energy to climate change

Sous la direction de Hugo Mercier
Résumé : Even if the topic of the use of nuclear energy is controversial today among experts, there is a consensus on the fact that it emits a very low amount of greenhouse gas and therefore that it represents a possible solution in the fight against climate change. Yet, the fake idea according to which nuclear energy emits large amounts of CO2 is world widely spread among non-experts, and this belief might lead to wrongfully discarding a technology potentially useful in the fight against climate change. We experimentally analysed the origins of this belief, comparing two theories that could explain its existence and its spread : it could either be considered as an expression of a general negative opinion on nuclear energy stemming from the general dread it provokes (bottom up approach), or it could be considered as a specific belief held from a direct source of wrongful information (top down approach). We elaborated an experiment on the intuitive association of nuclear energy to dangerous and harmless fake products to test whether it was considered as more harmful and negative than other energy sources or not. Our results showed that there existed a general negative opinion on nuclear energy, concurring with the bottom up approach that acknowledged the existence and the spread of this belief. We then tested the efficiency of exposing non-experts to arguments on the low level of nuclear energy CO2 emissions in order to change their opinion on this specific topic, and analysed whether it also impacted their belief that nuclear energy contributed to climate change. Our results showed that the belief according to which nuclear energy emitted CO2 was not deeply entrenched and easy to dismantle, and that argumentation on CO2 emissions had a positive impact on the perception that nuclear energy didn’t contribute to climate change. But compared to other topics, such as nuclear radiations, nuclear benefits in terms of energy supply and economics, the specific topics of climate change and CO2 weren’t effective enough to substantially change participants’ general opinion on nuclear energy.
41 p., 2021
Spécialité : Cognition sociale
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1911


KEREBEL Adrien
Étude des interactions entre mind-wandering et métacognition
Sous la direction de Jérôme Sackur
Résumé : L’étude de ce qu’il est admis d’appeler la “rêverie éveillée” (mind-wandering), montre qu’une même personne se trouve successivement dans des états mentaux variés : son attention peut se détacher de la tâche en cours, et son degré de concentration fluctuer (Smallwood & Schooler, 2015). La nature de ces fluctuations a été maintenant bien étudiée, ainsi que leurs conséquences sur le niveau de performance global des individus. En revanche, l’étude des interactions entre ce niveau “meso” et le niveau “micro” des mécanismes cognitifs élémentaires est encore à l’état embryonnaire.
Dans ce projet, nous proposons une première approche de cette question, en nous concentrant sur la métacognition. En sélectionnant parmi les facultés métacognitives la détection d’erreur, nous testons d’une part si les fluctuations de la concentration affectent ces capacités par- delà leur impact bien connu sur la performance elle-même (direction meso Æ micro); et réciproquement, nous étudions la possibilité que la détection d’erreur ait un rôle causal dans la régulation de l’état mental (direction micro Æ meso).
Pour cela, pour utilisons une tâche d’attention soutenue dans laquelle les sujets ont la possibilité de détecter leurs erreurs (Error Awareness Task, Hester et al. 2005). Des « sondes de pensées » sont régulièrement présentées aux participants pour qu’ils rapportent leurs états mentaux.
Dans un premier temps, des modèles de régression sont utilisés pour prédire d’une part les erreurs et les détection d’erreurs à partir de l’état mental, et d’autre part les états mentaux à partir de la performance et de la capacité à détecter ses erreurs. Les résultats montrent un lien local potentiel entre détection d’erreur et niveau de concentration subjectif.
Dans un second temps, nous proposons une méthode d’analyse causale qui suggère que le taux d’erreurs, mais pas le taux de détection d’erreurs, a une influence unilatérale sur le niveau de concentration à grande échelle.
30 p., 2021
Spécialité : Philosophie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1912


KONUK Can
Explaining the successes of reasoning without Intellectualist postulates
Sous la direction de Salvador Mascarenhas
Résumé : Most research on reasoning has relied on an ‘Intellectualist’ postulate: reasoning is after truth. Logical mistakes are bugs of reasoning which Intellectualist theories should build additional hypotheses to account for. Recently, the Interactionist theory of reasoning (Mercier Sperber, 2011, 2017) proposed a different approach. Reasoning is not for tracking truth but for convincing others with arguments. This converse approach comes with a converse problem : how can humans consistently agree on logical norms and show a preference for logically valid arguments? This problem is hard to fix within the Interactionist framework without reintroducing Intellectualist assumptions. I argue however that a solution can be offered by cashing out the Interactionist theory with a lower-level theory of reasoning, the Erotetic theory of reasoning (Koralus & Mascarenhas, 2013). I prove that certain structural properties of the Erotetic system make it so that more logical arguments systematically rely on less informative premises as a coexten- sive feature. This allows an evaluation function that tracks the informativeness of arguments, in the style of the Interactionist theory’s ‘Epistemic vigilance’, to ef- fectively favor logical reasoning in Interactions without being tailored to classical logic. This proof will have an important theoretical implication: we can explain the normative power of classical logic on human reasoning without assuming that the norm of classical logic is implemented anywhere in the human computational system.
40 p., 2021
Spécialité : Philosophie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1913


KOSHEVOY Alexey
Contact-induced changes in colexification patterns
Sous la direction de Thierry Poibeau, Alexandre François et Siva Kalyan
Résumé : Languages differ significantly in ways in which they partition their semantic space. Although researchers study semantic partitioning in many different ways, the idea of colexifications (François (2008)) offers a way to explore cross-linguistic patterns of polysemy. For instance, languages such as Russian (< Slavic) or Archi (< Nakh-Daghestanian) colexify the concepts FOOD and MEAL1. The same pattern is shared across 136 other languages from different linguistic families, according to the CLICS database (Rzymski et al., 2020). On the other hand, the colexification of the concepts BREAD and FLOUR The research question that this study tries to answer is the following: what factors guide the distribution of colexification patterns across languages? Although similar research questions are addressed in the literature, the results seem to be very polarized. For instance, while studying the distribution of colexification patterns related to celestial objects and landscape, Youn et al. (2016) have not found any effects of factors such as areal or phylogenetic prox- imity. On the other hand, Jackson et al. (2019) claim that the colexification patterns of emotion-related concepts are distributed according to areal proximity, although this factor alone does not fully account for their distribution. Thompson et al. (2020) have examined the distribution of the colexification patterns and have found no effect of areal, cultural, or genetic proximity. Although those studies have all used different datasets and metrics to measure the similarities in colexification repertoires, they reflect the long-going debate between the so- called universalist and relativist views on the lexicon. The first view’s central assumption is that semantic partitioning should be primarily universal as it reflects the cognitive constraints shared across the world’s population. The second assuming that the semantic partitioning should be mostly language-specific, as it is shaped by extra-linguistic factors, such as areal or phylogenetic proximity.
The central hypothesis is that the language contact drives the distribution of the colexification patterns, contrary to other factors, such as phylogenetic proximity, cultural similarity, or con- ceptual space’s universal structure. Data from 105 languages from the NorthEuraLex database (Dellert et al., 2020) is used to test this hypothesis. The Weighted Minimum Colexification Distance (WMCD) is introduced to measure the distance between languages in relation to shared colexification patterns. WMCD is computed as follows. First, the inverse3 probability of each colexification in the database is computed. Given the set of shared colexifications between two languages, each is weighted according to its inverse probability. Then, the sum of weights is taken and divided by the sum of the total number of colexifications in two lan- guages. The main goal of introducing this metric is to quantify the rarely shared innovations in the colexification repertoire, which is not possible with other set similarity metrics such as the Jaccard index used in similar studies (Youn et al., 2016; Thompson et al., 2020). WMCD offers robust results that are stable even if the number of concepts is relatively low4.
The 105 language varieties from 21 language families are combined in 5460 pairs. For each pair, the geographic distance (median = 3351.7, sd = 2284.049) and WMCD (median = 0.09159214, sd = 0.02415513) are computed. Whether the two languages belong to the same family and sub-family is also inferred from the initial database. Following (Yamauchi and Murawaki, 2016), the possible contact situations are inferred through a threshold distance in a neighbor graph of languages, where the threshold value is set at 1000 km. As the distribution of WMCD does not follow the normal distribution, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare WMCD values relative to different groupings. As the difference was found significant with regards to both contact and phylogenetic grouping, additional testing was performed. Additional testing is done using the Gradient Boosting Regression, as this ML model provides good accuracy on different datasets and is highly interpretable. This testing indicated that nor contact nor distance can be used as predictors for WMCD. However, the population difference and phylogeny have been found to be important predictors. Additionally, the Neighbour Pressure Metric from Nikolaev (2019) is used to infer whether the exposure to a particular colexification pattern can be used to predict its presence in a given language. The NPM metric was found to be a significant predictor for the presence or absence of particular patterns when combined with both phylogenetic attribution and the probability of occurrence. This result supports the hypothesis of contact-induced distribution of colexifications.

1https://clics.clld.org/edges/256-1526 2https://clics.clld.org/edges/1368-1594
3Probability subtracted from one. 4We found that the lowest number of concepts to produce consistent results is 50.
80 p., 2021
Spécialité : Langage
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1914


LAMRANI ALAOUI El Ghali
Applying behavioral science to online consumer protection
Sous la direction de Mariam Chammat – Coralie Chevallier
Résumé : Consumers are increasingly vulnerable to online fraud. Many causes explain this observation of the Direction Générale de la Concurrence, de la Consommation et de la Répression des fraudes (DGCCRF). First, consumers are bounded by their limited attention in an environment that is becoming increasingly vast and complex. Second, consumers have emotions that can be manipulated to incite a target behavior and vendors are more aware of that. Third, there is an asymmetry of information between vendors and consumers that make the latter more vulnerable to ill-intentioned practices. To solve this problem, we can either change the environment or change the decision maker, in this case, the consumer. A tripartite team with people from the Direction Interministérielle de la Transformation Publique (DITP), the Behavioral Insights Team (BIT) and the DGCCRF decided on a preventive approach that empowers consumers to make better decisions. This approach involves creating a teachable moment and training consumers. An experimentation is currently unfolding in the field to confirm the effectiveness of this approach. We do not have concluding data at this point but we hope it will prove useful and become a new tool in the fight against online fraud.
70 p., 2021
Spécialité : Cognition sociale
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1915


LANNELONGUE Elisa
Bayesian modeling of temporal predictions
Sous la direction de Sophie Herbst
Résumé : /
72 p., 2021
Spécialité :
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1916


LEPREVOST Florian
Functional Ultrasound imaging of ferret auditory cortex after sound exposure reveals spontaneous pattern reactivations modulated by novelty and relevance
Sous la direction d’Yves Boubenec
Résumé : Spontaneous neural activity is widely thought to be more than noise, but its nature, content or function is still largely unknown. Literature from memory research suggests that subsequent reactivation of sensory experience underlies memory consolidation, and such reactivations could thus be part of spontaneous activity. However, reactivations have been mostly observed with a specific neuronal population (hippocampal place cells), but almost never in the cortex. Furthermore, if we largely know what predicts memory performance, we don’t know what predicts reactivations.
Here we imaged a ferret’s auditory cortex during and after sound exposure, to test for the presence of reactivation of recent sensory experience in spontaneous activity. We used a large field imaging method (functional ultrasound) well suited to look at pattern similarity between cortical activity during and after sound exposure. We looked at the similarity of sound exposure periods with subsequent resting state periods, and as a control we contrasted it with the similarity with pre-exposure rest periods. The similarity with the post-exposure period was significantly higher, suggesting the presence of reactivations. The effect was more important the first time sounds were heard, as well as for more ecologically relevant sounds (ferret vocalizations).
These results tend to confirm that reactivations of sensory experience are indeed present in spontaneous cortical activity. Moreover, the quantity of reactivation is increased by the novelty and the relevance of the experience. We thus continue to better understand spontaneous activity, and how it is influenced by recent sensory experience. Finally, this provides an original argument for the presence of cortical reactivations, and shows that they are influenced by the same factors as memory.
38 p., 2021
Spécialité : Audition
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1917


LORIN Louis-Marie
R&D: Détection d’outliers et création de builtins
Sous la direction de Emmanuel Chemla
Résumé : L’IA de Golem.ai ne traite pas toutes les données textuelles en entrée pour faire son analyse linguistique, mais l’on sait que parmi ces rebuts, il existe des outliers sémantiquement significatifs. Notre POC suggère qu’une analyse statistique via une version modifiée de tf-Idf pourrait permettre d’identifier ces outliers de manière automatique.
Par ailleurs, l’IA de Golem.ai n’était pas configurée pour détecter des builtins, des éléments textuels structurés que l’on retrouve quel que soient les besoins clients. En particulier, j’ai dû configurer l’IA pour pouvoir détecter les adresses postales et les dates.
37 p., 2021
Spécialité : Intelligence artificielle
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1918


MARANT Mariette
Conception d’un atelier de rééducation clinique en réalité virtuelle : côté thérapeute et côté patient
Sous la direction de Valérian Chambon – Marie Lourenco
Résumé :
142 p., 2021
Spécialité : Ingénierie cognitive
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1919


MC DOUGALL-VIGIER Louis
Modelling the cerebellum with a reinforcement learning algorithm
Sous la direction d’Alex de Cayco-Gajic
Résumé : The cerebellum is classically thought of as contributing to motor learning by implementing a supervised learning rule, whereby the cerebellar cortical circuit integrates feedback errors with sensory expectations to refine movements. However, a growing body of research suggests that the workings of the cerebellum might involve an unexpected variety of learning rules, and that this brain structure partakes in non-motor processes, including cognitive ones. In particular, recent studies highlighted the cerebellum’s role in reinforcement learning, i.e. learning through rewards or punishments. Electrophysiological and imaging studies in mice revealed that, in conditioning tasks involving rewards, most components of the cerebellar cortical microcircuit encode reward-related information such as prediction errors and reward expectations. Yet, how those reward-related signals are precisely integrated by the cerebellum is unknown. In this project, we set out to account for the integration of reward-related information in the cerebellum with an algorithm from the field of reinforcement learning. We formulated the novel hypothesis that the cerebellar cortical microcircuit implements a reinforcement learning algorithm known as semi-gradient SARSA, based on current knowledge about how different neuronal types encode reward, sensory and motor information. To test this hypothesis, we first built a model of the cerebellar cortical microcircuit, in the form of an agent learning through a semi-gradient SARSA algorithm. We tested the learning capabilities of that agent in two benchmark reinforcement learning tasks that involve goal-directed motor control : the inverted pendulum, or « cartpole » task and the « lunar lander » task. We show that our model can learn to achieve an acceptable performance in those two tasks, suggesting that semi-gradient SARSA could account for reward-related learning in the cerebellum. Finally, we discuss caveats and potential future steps that would strengthen our conclusion.
38 p., 2021
Spécialité : Neurosciences
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1920


MICHEL Léa
The mediating role of epigenetic age in the relationship between early-life stress and brain age acceleration
Sous la direction d’Esther Walton – Valérian Chambon
Résumé : Early-life stress is defined as the experience of stressful or adverse conditions during a child’s development. Its experience impacts brain maturation in particular through its structure and its epigenome. However, the pathways from stressful events to brain alterations are still in debate. Our project aimed to study the direct relationships between early-life stress during the development (prenatal, childhood and adolescent periods) and brain alterations and their indirect association through changes in the epigenome. We chose to use epigenetic age as a measure of epigenetic change and brain age as a measure of brain alterations since ageing is also a measure affected by early-life stress. We expected to find positive correlations between early-life stress and brain age acceleration directly, and indirectly through epigenetic age acceleration, meaning that more stress during the development would lead to an accelerated brain age and epigenetic age.
These variables were computed in three structural equation models, one for each developmental period. The prenatal and childhood models did not show good fit to the data, but the adolescent model did. We also run a general model including the three periods. Stress during pregnancy was positively correlated with brain age acceleration, stress during childhood was negatively correlated with epigenetic age acceleration and stress during adolescence was negatively correlated with brain age acceleration.
These results were contrary to our expectations, but it might be due to our small sample compared to the numbers of parameters used in our models, with that limitation it is difficult to draw any conclusion. Future studies could use other cohorts to increase the sample size and improve the model by taking into account the mental health issues in adolescence and adulthood. Indeed, mental disorders are a major consequence of early-life stress, this risk factor is thought to be due to alterations in neurocognitive systems and the epigenome after early-life stress.
53 p., 2021
Spécialité : Neurosciences
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1921


MISIEK Thomas
Behavorial flexibility of different coordination strategies on two reinforcement learning tasks
Sous la direction de Mehdi Khamassi
Résumé : Mammals display both adaptive reward seeking and punishment avoiding behaviours, which help them to successfully interact with their environment. These behaviours have been proposed to emerge not from a single unitary controller but rather from parallely processing systems. On the one hand, stimulus-response behaviors, subserved by dopamine-based learning in the striatum, are slowly acquired through repetitive interaction with the environment. On the other hand, goal-directed behavior, subserved by the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, rely on the extraction of the environment’s statistics to build an internal model of the world. During the last decades, reinforcement learning has proved to be a suitable mathematical framework to model both goal-directed and habitual behaviors, which are best accounted for by respectively Model-Based (MB) and Model-Free (MF) algorithm families. Nevertheless, neither of these two models can single-handedly reproduce the range of experimentally observed mammals behaviours. Rather, it is interactions between both strategies through the monitoring of a coordination model that has been found to replicate the best behavioral data. Additionally, some researchers have started to question whether rodents are really able to perform mental simulation and planning with an internal model of the environment. Coincidentally, a more parsimonious algorithm, the Successor-Representation (SR), have been proposed as an alternative candidate to a MB account of goal-directed behavior. In this work, we aimed to determine whether a SR-MF coordination model from Geerts et al., (2020) was better than a MB-MF coordination model from Dollé et al., (2010) at accounting for rats’ behavior in two spatial navigation tasks occuring in a water-maze (Pearce et al., 1998 ; Rodrigo et al., 2006). Additionally, this work aimed to verify a claim originating from Dollé et al. (2018), which stated that only their associative coordination model would be able to replicate the gradient effect of Rodrigo et al.,(2006), whereas an uncertainty-based arbitration model such as Geerts’ should not. Indeed, we found that only Dolle’s coordination mechanism was able to replicate Rodrigo’s finding. The origin of the generalisation gradient remained unclear however, as well as its absence in Geerts results. Further work will also be needed to understand whether it was the SR or the reliability-based coordination model of Geerts that hindered the gradient phenomenon. Both Geerts and Dolle’s models were able to replicate Pearce et al., (1998) results. The results suggested a better match of the MB to the experimental data, mainly due to suboptimal performances of the SR. Strikingly, it was found that the coordination model of Geerts, despite relying on a reliability-based arbitration mechanism, was able to generate spatial coordination patterns. We found that this phenomenon was intrinsic to any fusion coordination model.
nc, 2021
Spécialité : Intelligence artificielle
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1922


MUS Mathilde
Cognition et acceptabilité de la taxe carbone
Sous la direction de Coralie Chevallier – Hugo Mercier
Résumé : Most public policy debates are centered around the efficiency of policy measures, neglecting their acceptability. However, there is an important difference between the efficiency of a policy, assessed by economists, and its level of support in the population. The case of the carbon tax provides a particularly striking example: despite its potential for curbing CO2 emissions, it encounters a strong public resistance in many countries, resistance that even prompted the Yellow Vest protest movement in France. However, researchers have demonstrated that the acceptability of carbon taxation depends heavily on its design attributes, and in particular on the allocation of generated revenues. For instance, studies repeatedly reveal a clear public preference towards earmarking carbon tax revenues for environmental purposes. Earmarking is a budgeting practice by which all or a portion of collected tax revenues is dedicated to a particular sector chosen in advance, rather than subjected to the typical budget procedure of revenue-pooling. However, there is no agreement on the explanation for this observed preference for green earmarking of carbon taxes. We suggest that this preference stems in part from the thematic matching between the source of revenue (an environmental tax) and the use of revenue (environmental projects). In turn, this preference for ‘matched earmarking’ would result from the application of mental accounting, the fact that people keep track of their expenses by creating mental budgets that attempt to match the origin of revenues with the domain in which they will be used. Using online experiments on large samples of the British population (Npilot = 500, pre-registered main studies on representative samples: N1 = 900, N2 = 1300, https://osf.io/5nyve/), we find firm evidence that mental accounting plays a role in shaping citizens’ preference towards green earmarking of carbon taxes. A replication study conducted on a French representative sample (N3 = 990) confirmed the robustness of this result.
59 p., 2021
Spécialité : Cognition sociale
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1923


NARBONA SABATE Lara
Ontogeny of communication in Chimpanzees : A multimodal approach
Sous la direction de Katie Slocombe
Résumé : Is chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) communication homologous to that of their closely- related cousin, the Homo sapiens? To shed light on this question, the ontology of chimpanzees’ multimodal communication is investigated. After coding for infant chimpanzees’ gestures, vocalisations, and facial expressions, we used mothers’ gregariousness as a proxy for social exposure to investigate whether the latter has an effect on the ontogeny of infant chimpanzees’ communicative behaviours. We found that mother gregariousness did not seem to influence infant communication. Additionally, we did exploratory work on infants’ ontogeny of multimodal communication and we found that (1) infants seem to produce more gestures and facial expressions than vocalisations, that (2) the percentage of initiations and responses produced by the infant seems to be sensitive to age, with initiations decreasing and responses increasing as they get older, that (3) 44.53% of the produced gestures are used sequentially with other communicative signals; and that (4) multimodal signals account for 21.26% of infants’ communication. Future work should study the dependence on age of initiation and responses, and what could be the cause of responses taking over the initiations at 10 months of age. Other possible work should assess the differences between adult and infant communicative behaviours and see whether there is a gradual or critical change from one to the other.
78 p., 2021
Spécialité : Ethologie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1924


NASIOULAS Antonios
The role of anticipated feedback in decision making under risk
Sous la direction de Stefano Palminteri
Résumé : A number of studies have shown notable differences between description-based decisions and decisions involving experience, a phenomenon known in the literature as the description- experience gap. We conducted a series of four online factorial experiments using the repeated binary choice task in fully-described gambles to investigate the effect of post-choice feedback on risk propensity and expected value (EV)-maximization. The availability of feedback was manipulated in a within-subjects manner. Our results revealed a clear effect of feedback on risk propensity. Risky rates in the feedback blocks are higher than in the no-feedback blocks. When subjects are informed about the availability of feedback in the upcoming block, this difference emerges from the very first trial. Yet, when subjects are deprived of this information, this dif- ference emerges later. These results suggest that the effect of feedback in risk propensity is driven largely by a dispositional change rather than experience per se. Additionally, we found that repeated choice within a block tends to decrease risk propensity. In contrast, neither of these factors had a significant effect on EV-maximization rates. Model-fitting analysis using the Prospect Theory model showed that both the parameter controlling the curvature of the util- ity function (thus, reflecting risk attitudes) and the parameter determining the distortion of the probability weights significantly increase when post-choice feedback is provided. This result suggests a relative underweighting of small probabilities when feedback is provided, a result compatible with the existing literature.
68 p., 2021
Spécialité : Neurosciences
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1925


OLECH Alexandre
Le Awe et le Sublime
Sous la direction de Jérôme Dokic
Résumé : Le projet entrepris dans ce mémoire cherche à comprendre la nature de la relation entre les deux notions que sont le awe et le sublime. Si cette question a été abordée de manière périphérique dans beaucoup de travaux (philosophiques et psychologiques), il n’y a pas à ma connaissance d’ouvrage ou d’article dédié directement à cette question, en dehors de l’article de Arcangeli et al. de 2020 (Arcangeli, M., Sperduti, M., Jacquot, A., Piolino, P., & Dokic, J. (2020)). Awe and the Experience of the Sublime: A Complex Relationship. Frontiers in Psychology I). Ce court article constitue une sorte de tableau des hypothèses possibles pour comprendre la relation entre awe et sublime, mais comme le soulignent les auteurs, des travaux approfondissant la question sont souhaitables. Mon projet était ainsi de répondre à ce besoin exprimé d’un approfondissement de la question.
52 p., 2021
Spécialité : Philosophie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1926


OWCZAREK Eliott
Study of striatal and sub-thalamic nuclei local field potentials during a metacognitive task performed by severe obsessional compulsive disorder patients
Sous la direction de Karim N’Diaye and Luc Mallet
Résumé : Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder characterized by obsessions (intrusive and anxious thoughts, usually associated with pervasive doubt) and compulsion (repetitive and ritualized motor or mental acts). In severe OCD which is resistant to standard medication, an experimental therapeutic alternative is Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Despite its effectiveness when targeting specific brain regions in the basal ganglia, like the striatum (STR) or the subthalamic nucleus (STN), its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood.
Our research project aims to analyse Local Field Potential (LFP) recordings collected in the context of DBS surgery in N=8 patients with severe resistant OCD while they perform a task manipulating decision uncertainty. The task used a version of the widely used random-dot kinetograms (RDK) stimuli, where the global motion coherence was manipulated to adjust the difficulty of discrimination left- from right-ward motion. In particular, assessing one’s decision uncertainty is one facet of what is known as metacognition, and given previous reports of metacognitive deficits in OCD, we investigated whether the basal ganglia regions targeted by DBS would also be involved in the metacognitive monitoring underlying decision-making in uncertain contexts, which deficits might lead to pathological doubt. Therefore, we also collected post-decision confidence ratings from the patients during the task. Behaviourally we found that OCD patients are able to rate their confidence accordingly to the task difficulty but not to their own performance. LFP recordings shows that the STN specifically respond to the stimulus and the STR to the feedback presentation.
Given the limited number of patients, these observations need further investigation, possibly in experimental contexts combining metacognitive monitoring (confidence judgement) and metacognitive control (checking behavior), in particular to connect with earlier electrophysiological studies in OCD patients.
37 p., 2021
Spécialité : Neurosciences
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1927


PAREAU, Marie
What is the EEG signature of mind wandering in healthy subjects?
Sous la direction d’Alice Guesdon et Philippe Fossati
Résumé : Driving on a monotonous road while thinking about his grocery list or sitting in the subway while thinking about his future work meeting, these are some of the situations that characterize mind wandering. The work of this master’s research aims to define the electroencephalographic signature of mind wandering in a group of healthy subjects. 26 subjects performed during EEG recording a Sustained Attention Response Task (SART) during which they had to respond to thought probes characterizing their thoughts at the moment T. Results indicated a decrease for mind wandering events in the ratio of frontal theta (4–7 Hz) to beta (13-30 Hz) oscillations for 18 of the 21 subjects analyzed. An absence of significant difference was found for alpha power (8-12 Hz) for occipital electrodes and theta power (4-7 Hz) for frontal electrodes. The behavioral data did not show significant results (number of errors and reaction time similar between the thought probes considered as on task and those considered as off task).
p. 39, 2021
Spécialité :
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1928


PIOT Leonardo
French adults but not children rely more on consonants than on vowels in lexical processing: a familiar word recognition conflict task
Sous la direction de Sandrine Van Ommen et Thierry Nazzi
Résumé : In the literature, consonants have been proposed to be more important than vowels in lexical activation and access processes (i.e. C-bias). However, despite a large body of evidence in the infant and adult literature, no study have investigated this bias in the context of a familiar word recognition conflict task. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which French-speaking adults and children exhibit a C-bias in familiar word recognition with a task introducing a conflict between consonantal and vocalic information. To address this issue, we designed two audiovisual experiments evaluating the existence and strength of the C-bias during lexical access of familiar words in a group of 24-month-olds and a group of adults. Both experiments tested the recognition of a target object among two different familiar objects presented on a screen. In the control condition, the proposed auditory target corresponded to one of the objects presented. In the conflict condition, the target differed from one of the objects by a consonant and from the other by a vowel. In both experiments, word-recognition was found in the control condition. For the conflict trials, Experiment 1 revealed the existence of a consonant bias in adulthood, while Experiment 2 failed to reveal a processing bias in the 24-month-olds . Additionally, the strength of the C-bias in adults appeared to be marginally moderated by the syllabic position of the mispronounced consonant: consonants at word onset tended to carry more weight than consonants situated in coda position.
59 p., 2021
Spécialité : Langage
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1929


RAZAFINIMANANA Mihoby
Beta and gamma oscillations in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit during sensorimotor adaptation in healthy subjects: an meg studyBeta and gamma oscillations in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit during sensorimotor adaptation in healthy subjects: an meg study
Sous la direction de Cécile Gallea
Résumé : Learning is a dynamic process that involves a fast improvement of motor perfor- mance through practice by reducing the error (error correction phase), followed by the stabilization of motor performance to reach a plateau with a reduction of performance variability (plateau phase). In particular, updating motor plans using feedback of past trials is an important process that occurs prior to movement onset and allows optimiz- ing the performance. Past works have identified involved brain networks, including the cerebellum and frontal motor areas. The cerebellum has cognitive and integrative prop- erties which remain quite unexplored in humans. In contrast, the supplementary motor area (SMA)’s properties related to motor planning and learning were largely investigated. In the present study, we aim to characterize the activity time course and the temporal dynamics in the cerebellum during the preparatory period of a motor-learning task in healthy population, in comparison with the known temporal dynamics of the SMA. Par- ticipants performed successive trials of a reaching task with their right dominant hand under a control condition and a learning one where visual feedback was rotated, during magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings. We evaluated the effect of learning on the preparatory potential (onset and amplitude), and on the time-frequency changes within the cerebellum and the SMA. Based on the behavioral results, learning was separated into an error correction phase and a plateau one. MEG results showed a preparatory potential in the cerebellum whose onset was earlier during the learning compared to the control condition. The time-frequency analysis showed similar characteristics of the ?-oscillations within the cerebellum and the SMA, with an increase in synchronization during the early preparatory period. We used non-invasive repetitive transcranial mag- netic stimulation (rTMS) to modulate cerebellar outputs and measure the post-stimulation effect on learning-related MEG recordings and behavioral performance. However, none of these effects yielded significant results.
73 p., 2021
Spécialité : Neurosciences
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1930


REICH Zoé
Managing Children’s Screen Consumption
Sous la direction de Mariam Chammat – Coralie Chevallier
Résumé : Children spend an increasing amount of time in front of screens, and public concern is fast-spreading
(Santé Publique, 2017, étude Esteban). Despite this, there is no consensus among experts on what constitutes ‘healthy screen time and/or use’. This applied research project, conducted by the French public services, aims to help families navigate around confusing information. Therefore, its goal is not to define ‘healthy screen use’ but rather to create a tool relevant and useful for as large a population as possible. This research project addresses the screen question by viewing it as a behavioural problem related to habit reversal and formation. It was designed using a behavioural science protocol, namely by first identifying behavioural barriers and levers, confronting those insights with the environment and then creating solution prototypes. While the evaluation has not been conducted yet, the plan is to assess the chosen solution on a small sample of participants before scaling it up if results are encouraging.
The chosen solution is a web-application, also downloadable on smartphone, that helps families run a self-diagnosis to point out the screen-related behaviours they find most disturbing in their household. The app then provides personalised recommendations based on the families’ answers and creates a personalised ‘family screen chart’ to apply at home. The challenging part of this project will be to bolster engagement over a long enough period of time in order to create lasting new healthy habits. The behavioural levers used within the app will be discussed, as well as the limitations of its design.
129 p., 2021
Spécialité : Cognition sociale
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1931


ROUE Aurélie
Can the Content of Visual Perception Be Emotional? A Cognitive Model for Understanding Dysmorphophobia in Anorexia Nervosa
Sous la direction de de Vignemont Frédérique
Résumé : Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by food restriction, weight loss and body image distortion. AN subjects see themselves larger than they are. Few cognitive models have tried to explain this bodily disorder. The ones proposed mainly focus on a central distorted body image which penetrates visual perception. I aimed in this work to propose a new and . This model is based on recent works on “emotional attention”. “Emotional attention” is a separate category of attention, beyond the classical distinction between bottom-up and top-down attention. According to this theory, amygdala evaluates the emotional valence of visual stimuli and boost their perceptual processing in early sensory neural pathways, including visual cortex. Sensory neural areas process more efficiently these emotional stimuli which appear more salient. This mechanism occurs very early and is automatic. I hypothesize that one explanation of visual body distortion in AN is due to emotional attention. I suggest that body parts such as “thigh, belly, hips” in AN are perceived as affectively-loaded visual stimuli. Amygdala ascribes a valence to body parts at an early stage of processing and, via feedback connections to visual areas, increases their early processing in visual cortex. Body parts appear more salient and, in my theory, larger. My hypothesis is congruent with previous works on AN. However, empirical data are still missing, and further experiments are required to confirm the validity of the new model I propose.
54 p., 2021
Spécialité :
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1932


SARRÉ Annahita
Cerebral mechanisms of Cued Speech perception
Sous la direction de Laurent Choen
Résumé : Most alphabets are based on visual coding of phonemes and syllables. However, other visual codes were developed for use by deaf people for conveying visually the sounds of speech. In particular, cued speech was designed to facilitate lip reading by specifying pronounced syllables through a combination of lip configuration, hand position and handshape. The use of this communication system improves general language skills, and reading in particular, in a deaf community characterized by a low average level of literacy. Despite its proven efficiency, and while learning this system likely involves brain transformations comparable to those associated with reading acquisition, the mechanisms of cued speech perception remain largely unknown.
The goal of this internship was thus to design and set up a study that will permit to explore the brain basis of cued speech perception and its links with reading, two coexisting visual codes for language that could both compete and support each other. This project is composed of three MRI experiments, two localizers and a decoding experiment, involving 3 groups of subjects (deaf and hearing subjects cued speech users and a group of cued speech-naive hearers).
Our preliminary results permitted a first overview of regions involved in cued speech visual and linguistic processing. Mapping the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT) of participants, we found that the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA), a region involved in reading, may also be implicated in cued speech processing, and more particularly in its lipreading component.
57 p., 2021
Spécialité : Langage
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1933


SIJILMASSI Amine
From human coalitional psychology to the nation-state: why are large-scale groups so often aligned on linguistic boundaries?
Sous la direction de Nicolas Baumard et Lou Safra
Résumé : A growing literature in psychology demonstrates that humans express a social preference for linguistic cues of similarity. This preference seems to translate at the political level: in many countries, the unity of the nation-state is tightly interwoven with the notion of a shared language, suggesting that linguistic proximity elicits representations of group solidarity and loyalty that facilitate the maintenance of large-scale coalitions. Yet, the precise reasons why linguistic similarity plays such a prominent role in human coalitional psychology remains under-investigated. Why is linguistic homogeneity so successful in structuring large-scale political coalitions, sometimes more than political principles, economic class interests, religious affiliations, or smaller-scale traditional forms of group organization (the family, the clan, etc…)?
We propose that social preferences for linguistic similarity result from the transaction costs generated by linguistic distance. Among all cultural traits, linguistic distance generates the highest and most inescapable transaction costs. This makes defection from a linguistic group unlikely which in turn favors coalition-building and trust within rather than across linguistic groups. Multilinguals have cooperative options in multiple linguistic groups, which may be perceived as increasing their temptation to defect. Viewing nation-states as political coalitions of individuals joining efforts to increase their individual fitness, this theory explains why individuals so often wish to be governed by and with members of the same linguistic community, and why governments so often endeavor to maintain linguistic homogeneity of their nation.
To test this theoretical framework, we propose a novel experimental task in which we asked participants to report their perception of the national commitment of monolingual and bilingual characters. In addition to linguistic cues, we manipulated information about the cooperative options associated with the bilinguals’ linguistic group: some were described as having access to a wide cooperative network and others to a virtually inexistent one. We predicted that participants would express a stronger preference for monolinguals when bilinguals had access to a larger network of alternative cooperative options.
58 p., 2021
Spécialité : Cognition sociale
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1934


SIMONOT Ondine
Le partage des émotions au théâtre : une étude expérimentale au service d’une analyse philosophique
Sous la direction de Jérôme Pelletier
Résumé : Ce projet avait pour ambition d’explorer, de manière expérimentale et en condition écologique, le partage des émotions dans l’espace-temps des représentations théâtrales, entre acteurs, entre spectateurs et dans la relation acteurs-spectateurs. Cette étude expérimentale devait ensuite être mise au service d’une analyse philosophique sur la place de l’émotion dans l’art et sur le rapport humain à la fiction, en lien avec l’Expression Theory et le Paradoxe de la fiction. En raison de la crise sanitaire, le projet a dû être adapté pour être réalisable à distance. Il devait alors, dans un premier temps, investiguer les traits psychologiques des acteurs, des spectateurs et des employés du théâtre. Puis, d’autre part, il devait étudier de possibles corrélations entre l’expérience de l’acteur en jeu et la présence du public, ainsi qu’entre l’expérience des acteurs en jeu et l’appréciation du public, sur des représentations diffusées en ligne et en direct, chaque semaine, lors du programme “Théâtre à la table” de la Comédie-Française.
31 p.,
Spécialité : Philosophie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1935


STIERLIN Joanna
Measuring the quality of confidence in a statistical learning context
Sous la direction de Florent Meyniel & Audrey Mazancieux
Résumé : Confidence is often described as a “feeling of knowing” or a belief about the truth of an information. In the field of decision-making, confidence is often asked to participants after they have made a choice. Confidence can be therefore judged as accurate or not according to whether the previous decision is correct or incorrect. Here we aim to measure this quality of confidence in a statistical learning task. In this task, participants must estimate probabilities inferred from a sequence and then are asked to assess their level of confidence on a continuous scale (e.g. in Meyniel, Schlunegger & Dehaene, 2015). Many measures of quality of confidence already exist in the field of decision-making (Fleming & Lau, 2014) , however they all rely on a dichotomisation of task performance: decision can be correct or incorrect. In statistical learning, the notion of correctness is continuous, involves more complex factors and requires modelling. As such, existing measures are not applicable to statistical learning. We proposed a first approach based on correlations between a Bayesian ideal observer model and participant’s estimates. There was a major caveat with this approach: humans are not perfect Bayesian observers and can make errors in their probability estimates. Being aware of our errors is crucial for the quality of confidence. In a second approach, we incorporated this error sensitivity component in our measure. This second measure is based on the variance explained by two factors identified as playing a major role in the quality of confidence: the confidence ratings of the ideal observer (as a normative reference) and the error between subjective and ideal probability estimates (as an error sensitivity component). This measure could be used in the case of a continuous performance provided that the model of the observer is adapted to the task.
58 p., 2021
Spécialité :
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1936


STOCKART François
Investigation of the neural correlates of conscious perception
Sous la direction de Claire Sergent
Résumé : Is our perceptual experience of a stimulus entirely determined during the early buildup of sensory representation, or can later influences still determine whether we will perceive it consciously? Recent studies demonstrated that retro-cueing attention towards the location of a visual target after its disappearance can still improve detection. This effect has been interpreted as reflecting delayed conscious access to the target. In our magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we test this interpretation by investigating whether neural signatures of percep- tual awareness can be activated retrospectively. Using a single visual stimulus at threshold contrast and symbolic auditory retro-cues, we manipulated retro- spective endogenous attention and assessed its influence on target visibility and orientation discrimination. Behavioral data indicate that endogenous reorient- ing of visual attention improves target detection. MEG data show that there is a cue-dependent, top-down reactivation in the source space corresponding to V1 ?250ms after the auditory cue presentation, regardless of the cue’s timing relative to the visual stimulation. We predicted that this reactivation is asso- ciated with delayed conscious access to the target, but current analyses cannot establish whether this predictions is confirmed or not. Further analyses will be required to assess whether conscious access to a stimulus can be triggered by retrospective attention several hundred milliseconds after its onset, underlining temporal flexibility in conscious perception.
45 p., 2021
Spécialité : Vision
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1937


SZMAROWSKA Anna Julia
The referential use of the human voice direction in goats and horses
Sous la direction de Simon W. Townsend
Résumé : Domestic goats (Capra hircus) and domestic horses (Equus caballus) are, to various degrees, skilled in the use of human social cues – such as pointing. This socio-cognitive predisposition has been attributed to the effects of the domestication process itself. In this thesis I further probe the socio-cognitive abilities of these species by investigating their ability to use the human voice direction referentially in an object choice task. Subjects were confronted with a choice between two containers. A human, sitting behind a barrier and closer to the unbaited container, vocalized with excitement toward the baited container situated on either the left or the right side. Goats were successful in this task, showing their ability to follow the directionality of the human voice. However, horses did not succeed at the task. Two further control studies excluded the possibility that goats used olfactory cues or another cue to choose the baited box. These results suggest that goats, but potentially not horses, have developed skills to take advantage of some very fine-grained aspects of human communication, namely auditory cues and their referential nature. Future work should follow these findings up so more general conclusions can be made regarding the influence of domestication and socio-cognitive abilities of animals.
nc, 2021
Spécialité : Langage
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1938


TSILIA Anastasia
Embedded Tense: Insights from Modern Greek
Sous la direction de Dr. Amir Ahmad Anvari & Prof. Philippe Schlenker
Résumé : Embedded tense in Modern Greek (MG) displays an unexpected ‘optionality’: both present and past tenses can be used under a past tense attitude verb to convey a simultaneous reading. We claim that MG has a mixed tense system, being able to delete the embedded past like English and shift the embedded present like Russian. Are these two the only routes to the simultaneous reading in MG? We claim that sometimes there is a third one, namely interpreting the embedded past with respect to the time of the utterance. Based on a cross-linguistic investigation of the availability of simultaneous readings in languages without a deletion rule, we provide evidence that there is variation, both across languages and across speakers. We provide an analysis using a pragmatic Prefer De Se principle and a syntactic Prefer Local Binding parameter. The first states that de se readings are preferred whenever possible, be they obtained via de se Logical Forms or via de re ones with temporal descriptions that happen to be de se. Prefer Local Binding expresses a preference for locally bound temporal variables, therefore giving rise to a back-shifted reading of past-under-past in the absence of a deletion rule. Based on data from ellipsis, we argue that in MG this parameter is inactive, and thus MG has a third route to the simultaneous reading. Finally, we introduce the ‘then’-present puzzle, namely the observation that ‘then’ is incompatible with the shifted present. We extend Ogihara & Sharvit’s (2012) and Vostrikova’s (2018) paradigm for Hebrew and Russian, arguing that the puzzle holds not only for present-under-past but also for present-under-future environments cross-linguistically, both under attitude verbs and in relative clauses. Furthermore, we provide novel data, and conclude that the puzzle also holds in a mixed tense language like MG. Finally, we show that ‘then’ is compatible with the present in other environments and we argue against competition-based accounts, leaving the puzzle open.
68 p., 2021
Spécialité : Philosophie
Cote pour l’emprunt : Master 1939